the keyboard. Usually, pairs will do that together at the beginning, and the navigator takes the responsibility of keeping a “goal stack” up-to-date as the work progresses: Working with a stack has another advantage: while thinking through the tasks needed to complete the programming session, the navigator has to flip between thinking backwards (in what state do we want to leave this system in?) We find Pair Programming to be one of the most effective ways to keep our developers productive, sharing knowledge and experience. While empirical studies have yet to yield definite results on either benefits or costs, a commonly cited best-case estimate of 15% overhead is claimed for systematic pairing, relative to individual work; this overhead, it is claimed (again with some empirical support, though not entirely conclusive), is compensated by gains in code quality which usually entails significant maintenance penalties down the road. Pseudocode is usually most employed when discussing small parts of the code like a caching strategy implementation, but can be useful at the beginning of a programming session, when creating the goal stack. Pair programming takes that concept to an extreme, by having the navigator constantly reviewing what the driver is typing, suggesting improvements or alternate approaches that might help catch edge cases. Sequencing and prioritizing that work effectively requires some practice, in particular when balancing the stack: ensuring any chances to do opportunistic refactoring are taken into consideration while ensuring to not take on too much additional work. The driver carries out the navigator’s instructions, but has the opportunity to make corrections or ask for clarification. While it’s acceptable to leave some unknowns or dirt behind in order to get the job done, a good navigator knows when to say “not right now”. With this style of pair programming, the navigator often loses interest. Before the programming starts, it’s important for the navigator to ensure their pair knows and is able to clearly state the goals they are headed towards. The two developers switch between being the “driver” and the “navigator.” The “driver” writes the code, while the “navigator” helps guide the problem solving and reviews the code as it is written. Possibly because the person in charge of typing is not communicating well, or perhaps the navigator does not want to bother him. pair_programming_roles. That's because pair programming is all about increasing your brainpower. Next up in our pair programming styles, consider the backseat navigator. In that style, actively sharing the input devices can be problematic: except for a few multiplayer games, it’s hard to find software out there that supports two people typing and clicking around at the same time. Most systems will have their features implemented following a consistent architectural pattern. Each monitor is a mirror of the other. Learn and facilitate learning. In a typical database-backed web application, for example, many of the features can be explained by adding in some more detail to the following diagram: Jotting down this diagram on a piece of paper large enough to accommodate new collaborating boxes and changes to arrowheads can be a good way for a pair to start thinking about the current state of the system, or which modifications and additions are needed. With a clean physical area to work on, the pair should also ensure the virtual workspace is taken care of to avoid introducing unnecessary environment-related distractions. Teletype for Atom. For all the more interesting and more abstract issues, though, an experienced navigator is good at communicating intent – the what, not the how, and uses inclusive language (“us” and “we”, rather than “I” or “you”) as much as possible while at it, so the driver is invited to revisit some of the motivations behind intents they might not necessarily agree on. Pair programming is an agile software development technique in which two programmers work together at one workstation. Pair programming and the re-appropriation of individual tools for collaborative software development. A trap many well-meaning but less experienced navigators fall into fairly often is to offer up advice as soon as that happens. Even when intent has been communicated clearly, we find that explicitly asking for confirmation is a good practice as it validates understanding and opens the conversation to feedback from the driver. It is important to remember that both roles in the pair are equally important with specific expectations and responsibilities during pairing. ), and we find that a stack lends itself to that kind of back-and-forth quite naturally. The person typing on the keyboard is … Driver and Navigator. Among the more interesting theoretical papers are those pursuing the ethnographic approach initiated among others by Sallyann Freudenberg (née Bryant), using close examination of programmers in their day-to-day work: Most empirical studies (14 out of the above mentioned 18) suffer from one common flaw often cited as an obstacle to generalizing conclusions: they are conducted with “convenience samples” of graduate or undergraduate students rather than on professionals in realistic work conditions. On the basis of informal observations, the pair programming literature suggests two further methods by which the navigator may assist via cognitive offload. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, Carry-le-Rouet, France, pp. Enter the email you used to create your reed.co.uk account and we'll help you access your account. This undermines the value of pair programming, as the point is to make joint design and implementation decisions, which is best avoided. The second member of the pair will start as the navigator. More simply “pairing”; the phrases “paired programming” and “programming in pairs” are also used, less frequently. Various studies have shown that pair programming has no negative influence on the development speed of a team. The primary alternative to the driver/navigator pairing style is called ping-pong pair programming. To that effect, multiple funny-looking acronyms have been created like DTSTTCPW, KISS, YAGNI and so on. Let us know if we need to revise this Glossary Term. The Driver is the person at the wheel, i.e. Embrace a modern approach to software development and deliver value faster, Leverage your data assets to unlock new sources of value, Improve your organization's ability to respond to change, Create adaptable technology platforms that move with your business strategy, Rapidly design, deliver and evolve exceptional products and experiences, Leveraging our network of trusted partners to amplify the outcomes we deliver for our clients, An in-depth exploration of enterprise technology and engineering excellence, Keep up to date with the latest business and industry insights for digital leaders, The place for career-building content and tips, and our view on social justice and inclusivity, An opinionated guide to technology frontiers, A model for prioritizing the digital capabilities needed to navigate uncertainty, The business execs' A-Z guide to technology, Expert insights to help your business grow, Personal perspectives from ThoughtWorkers around the globe, Captivating conversations on the latest in business and tech. Though it has somewhat fallen out of flavor, UML is an excellent way to describe systems in a visual manner. As they go through the goal stack, driver and navigator will eventually detour into some unknown part of the system, or a corner case in the acceptance criteria of the functionality. If … Negotiating these decisions is a job for both the driver and navigator, but ultimately the responsibility for doing it effectively and pragmatically lies with the latter. As navigator, sometimes you think about what the driver is typing. Plauger (Scott W. Ambler, Larry Constantine, 2001). And I prefer the ping/pong model, mainly because we are focused on Test Driven Development (TDD). The team member behind the keyboard and mouse is the driver. The other person is the navigator, whose job is to think. It’s easy for novice navigators, even more so those who are seasoned programmers, to get carried away into treating the driver as an order-taker or IDE operator with no particularly good judgment of what’s going on. Pair programming is a method of programming in which two people work together at one keyboard. Popularized by Extreme Programming enthusiasts a couple of decades ago, the act of programming together with another developer on the same workstation gained massive adoption within ThoughtWorks. The programmer at the keyboard is usually called the “driver”, the other, also actively involved in the programming task but focusing more on overall direction is the “navigator”; it is expected that the programmers swap roles every few minutes or so. The most common strategy of pair programming is the driver/navigator strategy. Pair programming is a great way to get familiar and comfortable with the codebase. They exchange their roles on a regular basis. Plauger, one of the implementors of C: “At each terminal were two programmers! -Where … The navigator’s role is to support the driver, watching for any errors being made. That is not to say that the opinion of the driver shouldn’t count, of course it should. These acronyms may even be used as the navigator as commands, analogous to the rally navigator who says “stay to the left, 300 metres” or a well-placed and thought through “you ain’t gonna need it”, when discussing bringing in a third-party library for example, can stop a lot of unnecessary stress. -Listen intently to the navigators instructions. Driver: -Write the code according to the navigator's specification. One programmer, termed as the driver, has control of … Driver-Navigator. All team members must find a mode in which they can work well together as pairs. Envisioned by Kent Beck in 90’s, extreme programming is a set of software standards which assists team of developers to fork over great software. Forgot your password? Pair programming generally includes two roles—one for each of the people in the pair. Pair programming can only lead to collective code ownership if the pairing partners change often enough. The other person, "the observer" (or "navigator") reviews each line of code as it is typed, checking for errors and thinking about the overall design. 1992: “Dynamic Duo” is the term coined by Larry Constantine, reporting on a visit to Whitesmiths Inc., a compiler vendor started by P.J. Nowadays, Pair Programming is seen as an effective way to keep our folks happy, productive and learning, as is described in the article. Any unrelated work is cleared, at least visibly, and the workstation is configured consistent with other development environments and meets the expectations of both developers. Teletype for Atom, an early entrant among real-time code collaboration tools, … Second member of the most Effective ways to keep our developers productive, sharing knowledge and.... 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